New battery Chemistry compared

Lithium Ion, dominant for the past 2 decades, is being challenged by new chemistry battery comparison shows up and coming chemistries. The revolution of electric vehicles and grid electricity storage was only possible from Lithium Ion chemistry? Weekly we see articles about new battery breakthroughs. From main-stream media and company announcements new batteries appear to be the holy grail. Most, however, are in early commercialisation phases. Most appear to be valid solutions to the batteries.

Table of New Chemistry Battery Comparison

Advances in technology independent of battery chemistry include:

  • Nano graphite anodes may add 20% to 50% improvement for any graphite anode product. For lithium-ion improvements check out this article.
  • Physical manufacturing processes can add 20% in energy density

Other Chemistries

Many news articles suggest Lithium Sulphur will have much higher energy density. However, this technology is only a beta stage. Researchers in Australia and USA have claimed a potential 4,000 cycles, a high theoretical capacity (1675 mAh/g) and a high energy density of 2500 Wh/ kg. More R&D may validate these claims. A whole new supply chain is required. Don’t expect LiS batteries prior to 2028.

Lithium IonLithium LFP and LMFPLiquid MetalsIron AirGraphene Aluminium-IonSodium Ion
MaterialsLithium, graphite, cobalt, nickelLi, P, graphite
Li, P, Graphite, Mn
Soda ash
Salt -Sodium
Energy Density Wh/kg2001602MW per 40′ container0.2 to 6MW per ha290145
Energy density (potential)250200nana400200
Current price $/kW100-15080-150180-25020na140
Future price 203070602120na40
Personal Electronics
Buses / Rail
Grid Storage
Stage of DevelopmentFull production
12GW by 2025
20GW by 2024
BetaFirst car, 1st gen
150GWh by 2027
Tesla / CATL
Tesla / CATL
AmbriForm EnergyGMG HiNa Battery

Further Potential for Lithium Ion Batteries

It’s plausible that with a conversion cathode and an engineered low-swell silicon anode, the cycle life of Li-ion can be extended all the way to 10,000 full cycles while also having the highest energy density in the market — thus breaking the [power vs. energy] compromise. Canary Media

Alternative Battery Types

Battery TypeCompaniesFunctionStatus
Sodium Metal Chloride (Salt storage)Flash EnergyGridStorage at 300o high temperature, – in CSP systems
Compressed air storageHydrostorGrid
60% round trip efficiency
Flow batteries using Vanadium
Flow batteries
* Vanadium
* Iron Flow (ESS)
* Zn Bromide
* Saltwater
Redflow, ESS, Invinity,
Cellcube, Primus Power Solutions, Largo
Lockheed Martin,
Schmide Group,
Sumitomo Electric,
UniEnergy Technologies,
VRB Energies
Community, grid, domesticSpecific energy 10–20 Wh/kg (36–72 J/g)
Energy density 15–25 Wh/L (54–65 kJ/L)
Lifespan of 20+ years
Active pumps
Nickel HydrogenEnervenueGrid, C&I1.2kWh per container, racks into containers
3 daily cycles, 30,000 cycles, 30 year life. Factory in build
5GWh by 2026
20GWh by 2030
H2 storageVariousGriduse H2 caverns, use in existing gas pipelines
Pumped hydroMost countriesGrid
80% round trip efficiency
QLD Aust Snowy 2.0, Burdekin, Gympie
Ocean Pumped hydroOcean GrazierGridNo beta yet
CSP Thermal storageRayGen, VASTGridRaygen – Beta, CSP on 10x10cm, + hotwater at 90oC in dams
Vast Energy, 300MW
CO2 Battery StorageEnergy DomeGrid LCOS US$50-60 MWh within a few years (!) 
GravityEnergy Vault, GravicityGridShanghai,
Texas, USA
Estimated = $171 MWh